PIER Graduate Week 2015

Europe/Berlin
SemRoom I-IV, CFEL, Bldg. 99 (Bahrenfeld Campus ( DESY))

SemRoom I-IV, CFEL, Bldg. 99

Bahrenfeld Campus ( DESY)

Notkestr. 85 22607 Hamburg
Description

Introductory and focus courses
Welcome to the registration site for the PIER Graduate Week 2015, an interdisciplinary workshop and lecture week for PhD students. Numerous national and international experts will offer a wide range of introductory and focus courses in the research fields Particle & Astroparticle Physics, Nanoscience, Photon Science, Infection & Structural Biology.
Each course is a consecutive four-day series of lectures and/or workshops. The introductory courses are designed for doctoral candidates who would like to learn more about a related research field, while the focus courses are in-depth sessions for doctoral candidates in their own respective research area. Please check the timetable in the navigation menu for the course details. You may register for two introductory courses, one focus course and one of the skills courses. There is no conference fee.
The Graduate Week addresses mainly PhD students, but interested MSc students and scientists are also invited to attend. Registration deadline: Extended to 10 September 2015

Scientific colloquium
Addy Pross, professor of chemistry at Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel, and NYU Shanghai, China, will give a talk on Monday, 5 October 2015 on "What is Life? How physics enables chemistry to become biology". His book "What is life?", published in 2012, has been received very positively by a wider public audience around the world.

Leadership and presentation skills workshops
These complementary workshops teach effective leadership and presenatation skills, and both combine short lectures with practical exercises and homework. Please note: The places for the workshops are limited. For more information, see the link in the navigation menu.

Industry talk
On Tuesesday, 6 October, Guillermo Jenaro Rabadan of Airbus Operations GmbH (Hamburg) will talk about his career in flight physics. Airbus is an aircraft manufacturing dicvision of Airbus Group with production and manufacturing facilities mainly in France, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom.

Poster session
For networking purposes and in order to promote the interdisciplinary exchange among the Graduate Week’s participants, there will be a poster session in which PhD students are invited to present their research projects. The best poster willl be awarded a prize.

Speakers
Nicole Fischer (UKE, Hamburg), Guillermo Jenaro Rabadan (Airbus Operations GmbH, Hamburg), Matthias Kadler (Würzburg), Heiner Linke (Lund), César Muñoz-Fontela (HPI, Hamburg), Michael Otto (NIH/NIAID, USA), Thomas Pietschmann (TWINCORE, MH Hannover & HZI, Braunschweig), Fabio Pistolesi (Bordeaux), Addy Pross (Ben Gurion, Israel & NYU Shanghai, China), Ian Robinson (London Centre for Nanotechnology), Holger Rohde (UKE, Hamburg), Robin Santra (DESY & Universität Hamburg), Elke Scheer (Konstanz), Bernhard Schmidt (DESY, Hamburg), Eva Weig (Konstanz), Volker Westphal (MPI Göttingen)

Local organising committee
Robert Blick (Nanosciences), Jochen Küpper (Photon Science), Jan Louis (Particle and Astroparticle Physics), Markus Perbandt (Infection and Structural Biology), Robin Santra (spokesperson PIER Helmholtz Graduate School), Mirko Siemssen (PIER Helmholtz Graduate School), Matthias Kreuzeder (administration DESY)



Poster
    • 9:00 AM 10:30 AM
      A1: Introductory course Photon Science, Robin Santra (DESY, UHH): Fundamental processes in photon-matter interactions SR II

      SR II

      Fundamental processes in photon-matter interactions:
      In the first half of this block course, a basic introduction to the theory underlying x-ray processes will be provided. After general remarks on the practical advantages of using x-rays for probing matter, the use of the minimal-coupling Hamiltonian within nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics will be outlined. Perturbation theory will be reviewed and applied to describe x-ray-induced processes. In connection with x-ray absorption, inner-shell binding energies and the photon energy dependence of the x-ray absorption cross section will be discussed. In the context of x-ray scattering, atomic and molecular scattering factors will be introduced and the complex index of refraction will be derived. This will be complemented by a discussion of x-ray fluorescence and Auger decay of inner-shell-excited systems.
      The first half of this block course will end with an elementary introduction to accelerator-based x-ray sources such as storage-ring-based synchrotron radiation sources and x-ray free-electron lasers.
      The second half of the block course applies the concepts introduced in the first half to examples from two categories. The first category is the high-intensity optical laser control of x-ray processes. Topics addressed in this category include the electronic alignment and dynamics in atomic ions produced in a strong laser field; laser-induced transparency in the x-ray regime; and laser-induced alignment of molecules.
      The second category is the electronic-structure problem in high-intensity x-ray fields. Generally, the probability that a given atom in a material absorbs an x-ray photon in a single x-ray pulse is much less than unity for storage-ring-based x-ray sources, even for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. This situation has changed dramatically with the arrival of x-ray free-electron lasers: In the micro-focus of an x-ray free-electron laser, saturation of x-ray photoabsorption is routinely achieved. The immediate consequence is that the overall behavior of matter under such extreme conditions is characterized by efficient multiphoton absorption via a sequence of single-photon absorption events combined with inner-shell decay cascades and collisional ionization processes. In this way, unusual, highly excited states of matter are formed, whose properties and dynamics are challenging to describe theoretically. The progress towards developing suitable electronic structure tools will be discussed. The performance of currently available electronic structure tools will be assessed by direct comparison with experimental data.

      • 9:00 AM
        Slides 1h 30m
    • 9:00 AM 10:30 AM
      A2: Introductory course Infection and Structural Biology, Holger Rohde (UKE, Department of Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene): Basic principles in bacteriology: from clinical symptoms to diagnostic procedures and treatment standards SR III

      SR III

      Basic principles in bacteriology: From clinical symptoms to diagnostic procedures and treatment standards

      Bacterial infections still pose a significant problem to societies in developing as well as European countries. These infections are usual related to well characterized groups of bacteria with known human pathogenic potential. Such virulent bacterial species express specific factors facilitating the establishment of infections even in the face of a competent human immune system. Knowing the association between specific clinical symptoms and typically encountered pathogens makes it sometimes easy to stratify patients presenting in the hospital and to deduce antimicrobial therapies. However, it is major importance to understand that certainly also unusual pathogens can cause infections, and that the typical pathogens are not necessarily susceptible against antimicrobials administered during what is called empiric therapy. Therefore, especially in the face of ever increasing rates of resistance against commonly used antibiotics, the identification of bacterial pathogens in clinical specimens is of utmost importance, since it sets the basis for a specific, pathogen-targeted therapy. In this lecture, the basic principles of bacterial infections are discussed. In addition, approaches towards the diagnosis of infectious agents in clinical specimens are presented, and very recent advances in the field of diagnostic microbiology will be addressed. In addition, we will learn how modern molecular techniques, i.e. mass spectrometry and next generation sequencing, will fundamentally change our approach to detect and characterize bacterial pathogens in the context of human infections.

    • 10:30 AM 11:00 AM
      Coffee Break 30m
    • 11:00 AM 12:30 PM
      B1: Introductory course Particle and Astroparticle Physics, Bernhard Schmidt (DESY): Bright Beams for Higgs Hunting and Ultrafast Imaging - the Art of Accelerating Particles SR II

      SR II

      Bright Beams for Higgs Hunting and Ultrafast Imaging - the Art of Accelerating Particles:
      Photon science and high energy particle physics both rely to a great extend on the quality of relativistic particle beams. The brilliance of these beams and the performance of the particle accelerators producing them has been substantially improved during the past two decades. The Large Hadron Collider, modern synchrotron light sources and X-ray Free Electron Lasers are at forefront of accelerator technology.
      The lectures will attempt to briefly summarize the common basics of these machines and work out the specific challenges which have to be mastered to bring their performance to the aimed for level. Finally, we will try an outlook to the next generation of machines and speculate a bit about some revolutionizing new concepts for the future.

    • 11:00 AM 12:30 PM
      B2: Introductory course Nanoscience, Eva Weig (University of Konstanz): Playing the nanoguitar: An introduction to nanomechanical systems SR III

      SR III

      Playing the nanoguitar: An introduction to nanomechanical systems:
      Nanomechanical resonators are freely suspended, vibrating bridges with nanoscale diameters. These nanostructures are receiving an increasing amount of attention, both in fundamental experiments addressing the foundations of quantum mechanics and in sensing applications, and show great promise as linking elements in future hybrid nanosystems. A realization of this potential is however based on the development of not only nanomechanical systems of high mechanical quality factor but also suitable control techniques.
      Here I will review this emergent field. After a general introduction covering types of nanomechanical resonators as well as common actuation and detection techniques, I will focus on dielectrically controlled, strongly pre-stressed silicon nitride nanostrings. These nanomechanical resonators feature remarkably high mechanical quality factors even at room temperature, while dielectric control provides a versatile toolbox to control their mechanical properties.

      slides
    • 12:30 PM 2:00 PM
      Lunch break 1h 30m
    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C1: Focus course Photon Science, Volker Westphal (Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen): Super-resolved fluorescence microscopy: Concepts and applications SR II

      SR II

      Super-resolved fluorescence microscopy: Concepts and applications

      Optical microscopy is a workhorse in Biology and Medicine, but unfortunately it is limited in resolution, due to the law of diffraction. 20 years ago a new idea emerged to fundamentally break this law. These two lectures will give you the background of this exciting field of research and explain how it actually works, both in theory and applications.

    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C2: Focus course Infection and Structural Biology, Michael Otto (NIH/NIAID, USA): Staph infections: toxins, biofilms, and antibiotic resistance SR III

      SR III

      Staph infections: toxins, biofilms, and antibiotic resistance

      Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are the leading cause of morbidity and death during hospital-associated infection. S. aureus infections are particularly problematic when these bacteria are resistant to antibiotics; and resistance to methicillin and similar antibiotics is especially widespread among them (methicillin-resistant S. aureus, MRSA). Furthermore, some MRSA strains have now become so virulent that they can also successfully infect healthy people outside of the hospital. Moreover, many S. aureus strains form sticky agglomerations, called biofilms, during infection, which adds general resistance to antibiotics and immune defenses to the frequently already drug-resistant bacteria. This lecture will present S. aureus and MRSA epidemiology and discuss mechanisms of virulence and antibiotic resistance that makes these bacteria an enormous problem for public health systems all over the world.

    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C3: Leadership skills (group A), Rob Thompson (RTTA) SR I

      SR I

    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C4: Presentation skills (group A), Elena Kaufman (UHH) SR V

      SR V

    • 3:30 PM 4:00 PM
      Coffee break 30m
    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D1: Focus course Particle and Astroparticle Physics, Matthias Kadler (University of Würzburg), Black-Hole Jets in the Universe SR II

      SR II

      Black-Hole Jets in the Universe

      It is now widely believed that supermassive black holes reside at the
      centers of most galaxies. They have masses of millions to billions times
      the mass of the sun and the violent physical processes in their
      immediate vicinity give rise to an immense power output. In active
      galactic nuclei, a small region around the black hole can easily
      outshine the whole host galaxy and may produce powerful collimated
      outflows of relativistic plasma, the so-called jets, which are
      associated with bright radio and gamma-ray emission. High-resolution
      radio observations allow us to image directly the innermost regions of
      AGN jets and to probe the extreme physical environment of supermassive
      black holes. Future observations at sub-mm wavelengths may even reveal
      the shadows of the black hole event horizons themselves. Complementary
      multiwavelength observations probe the accretion flow near the event
      horizon and measure the broadband spectral-energy distribution, which
      can be modeled to reveal how black holes form jets. In this course, we
      will discuss the relevant underlying physical processes and observations
      that lead to an understanding of the immediate vicinity of supermassive
      black holes and their creatures.

      slides
    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D2: Focus course Nanoscience, Eva Weig (University of Konstanz): Cavity nano-optomechanics SR III

      SR III

      Cavity nano-optomechanics:
      Cavity optomechanics deals with the parametric coupling of a mechanical degree of freedom with an optical cavity. It equally appears in macroscopic systems like gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO, but also in nanostructured resonators, and can be implemented in a multitude of physical systems. A key aspect of the field is the optomechanical cooling of a mechanical vibration via light-induced backaction. Potential applications range from the development of sensors for mass or acceleration or microwave-to-optical conversion to fundamental questions of quantum mechanics such as the entanglement of macroscopic objects of the influence of gravitation. This lecture will give an overview over this rapidly growing field, and cover state of the art experiments with nanoscale optomechanical systems.

      slides
    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D3: Leadership skills (group B), Rob Thompson (RTTA) SR I

      SR I

    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D4: Presentation skills (group B), Elena Kaufman (UHH)
    • 5:30 PM 6:00 PM
      Coffee Break 30m
    • 6:00 PM 8:00 PM
      Scientific colloqium and welcome reception with Addy Pross (Ben Gurion University, Israel, NYU Shanghai, China): What is Life? How physics enables chemistry to become biology: What is life? How physics enables chemistry to become biology SemRoom I-III, CFEL, Bldg. 99 (Bahrenfeld Campus ( DESY) )

      SemRoom I-III, CFEL, Bldg. 99 (Bahrenfeld Campus ( DESY) )

      How was it possible for life on earth to emerge from inanimate matter, and how can the very existence of living things be explained in physical and chemical terms? Recent studies in systems chemistry are throwing new light on these long-standing questions. Based on a broader understanding of the stability concept, we'll describe how life's emergence and its subsequent evolution constitute one continuous process, thereby helping to uncover the physical and chemical roots of Darwinian theory and offering new insights into the 'what is life' question.

    • 9:00 AM 10:30 AM
      A1: Introductory course Photon Science, Robin Santra (DESY, UHH): Fundamental processes in photon-matter interactions SR II

      SR II

      Fundamental processes in photon-matter interactions:
      In the first half of this block course, a basic introduction to the theory underlying x-ray processes will be provided. After general remarks on the practical advantages of using x-rays for probing matter, the use of the minimal-coupling Hamiltonian within nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics will be outlined. Perturbation theory will be reviewed and applied to describe x-ray-induced processes. In connection with x-ray absorption, inner-shell binding energies and the photon energy dependence of the x-ray absorption cross section will be discussed. In the context of x-ray scattering, atomic and molecular scattering factors will be introduced and the complex index of refraction will be derived. This will be complemented by a discussion of x-ray fluorescence and Auger decay of inner-shell-excited systems.
      The first half of this block course will end with an elementary introduction to accelerator-based x-ray sources such as storage-ring-based synchrotron radiation sources and x-ray free-electron lasers.
      The second half of the block course applies the concepts introduced in the first half to examples from two categories. The first category is the high-intensity optical laser control of x-ray processes. Topics addressed in this category include the electronic alignment and dynamics in atomic ions produced in a strong laser field; laser-induced transparency in the x-ray regime; and laser-induced alignment of molecules.
      The second category is the electronic-structure problem in high-intensity x-ray fields. Generally, the probability that a given atom in a material absorbs an x-ray photon in a single x-ray pulse is much less than unity for storage-ring-based x-ray sources, even for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. This situation has changed dramatically with the arrival of x-ray free-electron lasers: In the micro-focus of an x-ray free-electron laser, saturation of x-ray photoabsorption is routinely achieved. The immediate consequence is that the overall behavior of matter under such extreme conditions is characterized by efficient multiphoton absorption via a sequence of single-photon absorption events combined with inner-shell decay cascades and collisional ionization processes. In this way, unusual, highly excited states of matter are formed, whose properties and dynamics are challenging to describe theoretically. The progress towards developing suitable electronic structure tools will be discussed. The performance of currently available electronic structure tools will be assessed by direct comparison with experimental data.

    • 9:00 AM 10:30 AM
      A2: Introductory course Infection and Structural Biology, Holger Rohde (UKE, Department of Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene): Are we entering the post-antibiotic era? Emerging multi resistant bacteria as a major threat for public health SR III

      SR III

      Are we entering the post-antibiotic era? Emerging multi resistant bacteria as a major threat for public health

      The invention of antibiotics and their use to combat infectious diseases is a major step in the development of modern medicine. The application of substances that specifically target pathways that are expressed by bacteria, but not the human host, opened the way to reduce the mortality of infectious diseases significantly. And indeed, with the increasing availability of antimicrobial substances, it was assumed that in the future, infections will be of no threat for humans anymore. However, even the very beginning of the antimicrobial ear, it became evident that bacterial populations that are put under selective pressure certainly will evolve mechanisms allowing them to grow and proliferate even in the presence of high concentrations of a given antimicrobial. While these emerging resistant clones did not pose an immediate problem given the fast introduction of novel antimicrobials into the market, today the spread of resistant bacteria is a world wide threat that will change our approach towards treating bacterial infections. The problem we are facing relates on one hand to the slow development of novel therapeutic principle; on the other hand, the emerging bacterial pathogens are no more resistant against a single substance, but usually express mechanisms rendering them resistant against a wide variety of antimicrobials. Sometimes, such bacteria can become resistant against all known antimicrobials available today. In this lecture, we will look at basic mechanisms that facilitate resistance in bacterial pathogens and how these mechanisms can evolve and spread within bacterial populations. Looking at recent developments in epidemiology of multi-resistant pathogens, we will understand the different strategies and routes that promote spread of resistant pathogens, and we will have a look at recent approaches to combat the spread of such pathogens.

      slides
    • 10:30 AM 11:00 AM
      Coffee break 30m
    • 11:00 AM 12:30 PM
      B1: Introductory course Particle and Astroparticle Physics, Bernhard Schmidt (DESY): Bright Beams for Higgs Hunting and Ultrafast Imaging - the Art of Accelerating Particles SR II

      SR II

      Bright Beams for Higgs Hunting and Ultrafast Imaging - the Art of Accelerating Particles:
      Photon science and high energy particle physics both rely to a great extend on the quality of relativistic particle beams. The brilliance of these beams and the performance of the particle accelerators producing them has been substantially improved during the past two decades. The Large Hadron Collider, modern synchrotron light sources and X-ray Free Electron Lasers are at forefront of accelerator technology.
      The lectures will attempt to briefly summarize the common basics of these machines and work out the specific challenges which have to be mastered to bring their performance to the aimed for level. Finally, we will try an outlook to the next generation of machines and speculate a bit about some revolutionizing new concepts for the future.

    • 11:00 AM 12:30 PM
      B2: Introductory course Nanosciences, Elke Scheer (University of Konstanz): Electronic Transport at the Nanoscale SR III

      SR III

      Electronic Transport at the Nanoscale:
      Due to the downscaling of electrical components by several orders of magnitude during the past decades they feature now lateral structure sizes of only tens of nanometers. The resistance of macroscopic conductors is described by Ohm’s law, assuming diffusive charge transport carried by the conduction electrons. Surprising enough, for describing their transport properties the laws of macroscopic solid state physics can be applied with minor corrections arising from the quantum nature of transport. In this mesoscopic regime quantum interference effects come into play. Upon further miniaturization also this approach breaks down. When approaching the structure sizes of only a few nanometers, the electrical current obeys different laws than in macroscopic conductors. At the nanoscale electrons move ballistically and transport needs to be described using a quantum mechanical scattering approach. We will review the concepts used to describe mesoscopic and quantum conductors and give examples for typical structures and devices.

    • 12:30 PM 2:00 PM
      Lunch break 1h 30m
    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C1: Focus course Photon Science, Volker Westphal (Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen): Super-resolved fluorescence microscopy: Concepts and applications SR II

      SR II

      Super-resolved fluorescence microscopy: Concepts and applications

      Optical microscopy is a workhorse in Biology and Medicine, but unfortunately it is limited in resolution, due to the law of diffraction. 20 years ago a new idea emerged to fundamentally break this law. These two lectures will give you the background of this exciting field of research and explain how it actually works, both in theory and applications.

    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C2: Focus course Infection and Structural Biology, Michael Otto (NIH/NIAID, USA): Staphylococcus epidermidis - beneficial microbe and opportunistic pathogen SR III

      SR III

      Staphylococcus epidermidis - beneficial microbe and opportunistic pathogen:

      The human body contains 10 times more bacteria than human cells (the human “microbiome”). Among those that live as commensals on our skin, one of the most frequent is Staphylococcus epidermidis. This bacterium helps us fight off more dangerous microorganisms that would make us sick – such as the “bad cousin” of S. epidermidis, S. aureus. However, when S. epidermidis breaches through the protective barrier, our skin, it may cause significant problems. This happens mostly when indwelling medical devices such as catheters are inserted during surgeries, or when patients receive prosthetic devices. S. epidermidis has a phenomenal capacity to stick to those devices and hide from attacks by the human immune system. This lecture will introduce ways by which S. epidermidis limits overgrowth by pathogenic bacteria by either direct competition or stimulation of immune defenses, and mechanisms by which it hides itself from immune defenses during infection.

    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C3: Leadership skills (group A), Rob Thompson (RTTA) SR IV

      SR IV

    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C4: Presentation skills (group A), Elena Kaufman (UHH) SR I

      SR I

    • 3:30 PM 4:00 PM
      Coffee break 30m
    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D1: Focus course Particle and Astroparticle Physics, Matthias Kadler (University of Würzburg), Black-Hole Jets in the Universe SR II

      SR II

      Black-Hole Jets in the Universe

      It is now widely believed that supermassive black holes reside at the
      centers of most galaxies. They have masses of millions to billions times
      the mass of the sun and the violent physical processes in their
      immediate vicinity give rise to an immense power output. In active
      galactic nuclei, a small region around the black hole can easily
      outshine the whole host galaxy and may produce powerful collimated
      outflows of relativistic plasma, the so-called jets, which are
      associated with bright radio and gamma-ray emission. High-resolution
      radio observations allow us to image directly the innermost regions of
      AGN jets and to probe the extreme physical environment of supermassive
      black holes. Future observations at sub-mm wavelengths may even reveal
      the shadows of the black hole event horizons themselves. Complementary
      multiwavelength observations probe the accretion flow near the event
      horizon and measure the broadband spectral-energy distribution, which
      can be modeled to reveal how black holes form jets. In this course, we
      will discuss the relevant underlying physical processes and observations
      that lead to an understanding of the immediate vicinity of supermassive
      black holes and their creatures.

    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D2: Focus course Nanosciences, Elke Scheer (University of Konstanz): Introduction to Molecular Electronics SR III

      SR III

      Introduction to Molecular Electronics:
      The large toolbox provided by synthetic chemistry makes it possible to design molecules with inbuilt functionalities such as switches, transistors, rectifiers, sensors etc. The incorporation of functional molecules as active elements in electrical circuits may serve as technology for building integrated circuits on the nanoscale. One of the most commonly studied units is a single molecule junction in which the molecule is contacted to two metal electrodes. At first we will discuss the most popular methods for producing and characterizing the transport properties of single-molecule junctions. particular interest has to be payed to the electronic properties of the molecule metal binding. We will give an overview over the status of the field and give examples of realized functionalities, including optically and mechanically switchable molecules.

    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D3: Leadership skills (group B), Rob Thompson (RTTA) SR IV

      SR IV

    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D4: Presentation skills (group B), Elena Kaufman (UHH) SR I

      SR I

    • 5:30 PM 6:00 PM
      Coffee break 30m
    • 6:00 PM 8:00 PM
      Industry talk & reception: Guillermo Jenaro Rabadan (Airbus): Flight physics at Airbus Operations GmbH SR I-III, CFEL, bldg. 99 (Bahrenfeld Campus (DESY))

      SR I-III, CFEL, bldg. 99

      Bahrenfeld Campus (DESY)

    • 9:00 AM 10:30 AM
      A1: Introductory course Photon Science, Robin Santra (DESY, UHH): Fundamental processes in photon-matter interactions SR II

      SR II

      Fundamental processes in photon-matter interactions:
      In the first half of this block course, a basic introduction to the theory underlying x-ray processes will be provided. After general remarks on the practical advantages of using x-rays for probing matter, the use of the minimal-coupling Hamiltonian within nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics will be outlined. Perturbation theory will be reviewed and applied to describe x-ray-induced processes. In connection with x-ray absorption, inner-shell binding energies and the photon energy dependence of the x-ray absorption cross section will be discussed. In the context of x-ray scattering, atomic and molecular scattering factors will be introduced and the complex index of refraction will be derived. This will be complemented by a discussion of x-ray fluorescence and Auger decay of inner-shell-excited systems.
      The first half of this block course will end with an elementary introduction to accelerator-based x-ray sources such as storage-ring-based synchrotron radiation sources and x-ray free-electron lasers.
      The second half of the block course applies the concepts introduced in the first half to examples from two categories. The first category is the high-intensity optical laser control of x-ray processes. Topics addressed in this category include the electronic alignment and dynamics in atomic ions produced in a strong laser field; laser-induced transparency in the x-ray regime; and laser-induced alignment of molecules.
      The second category is the electronic-structure problem in high-intensity x-ray fields. Generally, the probability that a given atom in a material absorbs an x-ray photon in a single x-ray pulse is much less than unity for storage-ring-based x-ray sources, even for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. This situation has changed dramatically with the arrival of x-ray free-electron lasers: In the micro-focus of an x-ray free-electron laser, saturation of x-ray photoabsorption is routinely achieved. The immediate consequence is that the overall behavior of matter under such extreme conditions is characterized by efficient multiphoton absorption via a sequence of single-photon absorption events combined with inner-shell decay cascades and collisional ionization processes. In this way, unusual, highly excited states of matter are formed, whose properties and dynamics are challenging to describe theoretically. The progress towards developing suitable electronic structure tools will be discussed. The performance of currently available electronic structure tools will be assessed by direct comparison with experimental data.

    • 9:00 AM 10:30 AM
      A2: Introductory course Infection and Structural Biology, Nicole Fischer (UKE, Department of Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene): Viruses relevant to human infections SR III

      SR III

      Notkestr. 85 22607 Hamburg

      Viruses relevant to human infections:
      There are thousands of viruses, and in humans only a minor fraction of these viruses cause a wide range of diseases. Most viruses do not cause serious diseases; the immune system clears the virus from the body within days to a few weeks. But some viruses cause persistent infections.
      This lecture will explain main principles of virology addressing the following questions:

      How Are Viruses Different from Bacteria? How Do Viruses Infect the Body? How Long Do Viral Infections Last? How Do Viruses Cause Illness? How Are Viral Infections Diagnosed and Treated?
      How Are Viral Infections Prevented?

      Furthermore, the lecture will in particular focus and discuss some examples of clinically relevant viral infections.

    • 10:30 AM 11:00 AM
      Coffee break 30m
    • 11:00 AM 12:30 PM
      B1: Introductory course Particle and Astroparticle Physics, Bernhard Schmidt (DESY): Bright Beams for Higgs Hunting and Ultrafast Imaging - the Art of Accelerating Particles SR II

      SR II

      Bright Beams for Higgs Hunting and Ultrafast Imaging - the Art of Accelerating Particles:
      Photon science and high energy particle physics both rely to a great extend on the quality of relativistic particle beams. The brilliance of these beams and the performance of the particle accelerators producing them has been substantially improved during the past two decades. The Large Hadron Collider, modern synchrotron light sources and X-ray Free Electron Lasers are at forefront of accelerator technology.
      The lectures will attempt to briefly summarize the common basics of these machines and work out the specific challenges which have to be mastered to bring their performance to the aimed for level. Finally, we will try an outlook to the next generation of machines and speculate a bit about some revolutionizing new concepts for the future.

    • 11:00 AM 12:30 PM
      B2: Introductory course Nanosciences, Fabio Pistolesi, Introduction to electronic transport detection of nano-mechanical motion SR III

      SR III

      Introduction to electronic transport detection of nano-mechanical motion

      Nano-electromechanical systems have important perspectives for applications and for fundamental research. The manipulation, actuation, and detection of nanometer scale mechanical systems remain an experimental challenge. In this first lecture I will give an overview of detection methods of nano-mechanical motion based on electronic transport techniques. Electronic transport is a very sensitive detection method, contrary to light, it is not limited by the diffraction effect, and sensitive detection is possible for extremely small systems, like molecules and carbon nanotubes. In this overview I will describe magneto-motive detection, SQUID based detection, non-linear mixing technique, and more generally Coulomb-blockaded devices.

    • 12:30 PM 2:00 PM
      Lunch break 1h 30m
    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C1: Focus course Photon Science, Ian Robinson (LCN, UK): X-ray Coherence in Optical Design SR II

      SR II

      X-ray Coherence in Optical Design:
      This lecture will define longitudinal and transverse coherence, a property
      of X-ray beams from the latest synchrotron sources. Coherence lengths are
      continuing to improve with the machine designs. Coherence allows for new
      imaging modalities to be developed. Here we will discuss the details of
      the methods of Coherent Diffraction Imaging (CDI) and X-ray ptychography.

    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C2: Focus course Infection and Structural Biology, Thomas Pietschmann (MHH & HZI): Hepatitis C - time of change SR III

      SR III

      Hepatitis C - time of change:
      More than 25 years after the discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) – the causative agent of hepatitis C, an insidious viral liver disease that leads to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma –finally efficient and well tolerated treatments are available. These new drugs, so called directly acting antivirals, can eliminate the virus, cure the infection and thus offer hope and novel life perspectives to millions of chronically infected patients. Control of hepatitis C at the population level seems at close range. In fact experts contemplate whether regional elimination or even global eradication of HCV is now feasible. Concomitantly, the HCV research field transforms and tackles unsolved challenges.
      This workshop will cover basic principles of HCV replication and infection including the natural course of disease. Moreover, the development and mode of action of novel directly acting antivirals for HCV will be highlighted. Finally, future research challenges and unmet needs will be discussed in the light of ultimately controlling the global disease burden associated with chronic HCV infection.

      Prof. Pietschmann is head of the Insitute of Experimental Virology, TWINCORE, Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, a joint venture between the Medical School Hannover and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research

    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C3: Leadership skills (group A), Rob Thompson (RTTA) SR IV

      SR IV

    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C4: Presentation skills (group A), Elena Kaufman (UHH) SR I

      SR I

    • 3:30 PM 4:00 PM
      Coffee break 30m
    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D1: Focus course Particle and Astroparticle Physics, Matthias Kadler (University of Würzburg), Black-Hole Jets in the Universe SR II

      SR II

      Black-Hole Jets in the Universe

      It is now widely believed that supermassive black holes reside at the
      centers of most galaxies. They have masses of millions to billions times
      the mass of the sun and the violent physical processes in their
      immediate vicinity give rise to an immense power output. In active
      galactic nuclei, a small region around the black hole can easily
      outshine the whole host galaxy and may produce powerful collimated
      outflows of relativistic plasma, the so-called jets, which are
      associated with bright radio and gamma-ray emission. High-resolution
      radio observations allow us to image directly the innermost regions of
      AGN jets and to probe the extreme physical environment of supermassive
      black holes. Future observations at sub-mm wavelengths may even reveal
      the shadows of the black hole event horizons themselves. Complementary
      multiwavelength observations probe the accretion flow near the event
      horizon and measure the broadband spectral-energy distribution, which
      can be modeled to reveal how black holes form jets. In this course, we
      will discuss the relevant underlying physical processes and observations
      that lead to an understanding of the immediate vicinity of supermassive
      black holes and their creatures.

    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D2: Focus course Nanoscience, Fabio Pistolesi, Current blockade in Nano-electro-mechanical systems SR III

      SR III

      Increasing coupling between a detector and the mechanical system increases the sensitivity of the detection, but it also increases the back-action of the detector on the measured systems, perturbing the measurement. At the same time, strong coupling can lead to new and unexpected effects and phenomena. In this lecture I will discuss the current blockade that can be generated in different regimes by a sufficiently strong coupling between electron transport and nano-mechanical motion. A review of the theories and experimental results will be presented.

    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D3: Leadership skills (group B), Rob Thompson (RTTA) SR I

      SR I

    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D4: Presentation skills (group B), Elena Kaufman (UHH) SR IV

      SR IV

    • 5:30 PM 6:00 PM
      Coffee Break 30m
    • 6:00 PM 7:00 PM
      Poster session CFEL foyer

      CFEL foyer

    • 7:00 PM 9:00 PM
      Graduate Week BBQ CFEL foyer, bldg. 99 (Bahrenfeld Campus (DESY))

      CFEL foyer, bldg. 99

      Bahrenfeld Campus (DESY)

    • 9:00 AM 10:30 AM
      A1: Introductory course Photon Science, Robin Santra (DESY, UHH): Fundamental processes in photon-matter interactions SR II

      SR II

      Fundamental processes in photon-matter interactions:
      In the first half of this block course, a basic introduction to the theory underlying x-ray processes will be provided. After general remarks on the practical advantages of using x-rays for probing matter, the use of the minimal-coupling Hamiltonian within nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics will be outlined. Perturbation theory will be reviewed and applied to describe x-ray-induced processes. In connection with x-ray absorption, inner-shell binding energies and the photon energy dependence of the x-ray absorption cross section will be discussed. In the context of x-ray scattering, atomic and molecular scattering factors will be introduced and the complex index of refraction will be derived. This will be complemented by a discussion of x-ray fluorescence and Auger decay of inner-shell-excited systems.
      The first half of this block course will end with an elementary introduction to accelerator-based x-ray sources such as storage-ring-based synchrotron radiation sources and x-ray free-electron lasers.
      The second half of the block course applies the concepts introduced in the first half to examples from two categories. The first category is the high-intensity optical laser control of x-ray processes. Topics addressed in this category include the electronic alignment and dynamics in atomic ions produced in a strong laser field; laser-induced transparency in the x-ray regime; and laser-induced alignment of molecules.
      The second category is the electronic-structure problem in high-intensity x-ray fields. Generally, the probability that a given atom in a material absorbs an x-ray photon in a single x-ray pulse is much less than unity for storage-ring-based x-ray sources, even for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. This situation has changed dramatically with the arrival of x-ray free-electron lasers: In the micro-focus of an x-ray free-electron laser, saturation of x-ray photoabsorption is routinely achieved. The immediate consequence is that the overall behavior of matter under such extreme conditions is characterized by efficient multiphoton absorption via a sequence of single-photon absorption events combined with inner-shell decay cascades and collisional ionization processes. In this way, unusual, highly excited states of matter are formed, whose properties and dynamics are challenging to describe theoretically. The progress towards developing suitable electronic structure tools will be discussed. The performance of currently available electronic structure tools will be assessed by direct comparison with experimental data.

    • 9:00 AM 10:30 AM
      A2: Introductory course Infection and Structural Biology, Nicole Fischer (UKE, Department of Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene): Emerging viruses and how to use new technologies to hunt for viruses SR III

      SR III

      Emerging viruses and how to use new technologies to hunt for viruses:
      Emerging virus diseases are a major threat to human and veterinary public health. New examples occur frequently with the majority of viruses originating from an animal host.
      This lecture will explain important aspects of virus emergence and the current knowledge of the molecular basis how viruses may cross between species.
      In particular this lecture will provide examples of emerging viruses: e.g. coronaviruses (SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome virus, MERS) and Vector borne diseases.
      Furthermore, the lecture will discuss the use of metagenomic technique to identify novel pathogens and how such methods are expected to markedly strengthen the level of preparedness for future outbreaks of emerging pathogens.

    • 10:30 AM 11:00 AM
      Coffee break 30m
    • 11:00 AM 12:30 PM
      B1: Introductory course Particle and Astroparticle Physics, Bernhard Schmidt (DESY): Bright Beams for Higgs Hunting and Ultrafast Imaging - the Art of Accelerating Particles SR II

      SR II

      Bright Beams for Higgs Hunting and Ultrafast Imaging - the Art of Accelerating Particles:
      Photon science and high energy particle physics both rely to a great extend on the quality of relativistic particle beams. The brilliance of these beams and the performance of the particle accelerators producing them has been substantially improved during the past two decades. The Large Hadron Collider, modern synchrotron light sources and X-ray Free Electron Lasers are at forefront of accelerator technology.
      The lectures will attempt to briefly summarize the common basics of these machines and work out the specific challenges which have to be mastered to bring their performance to the aimed for level. Finally, we will try an outlook to the next generation of machines and speculate a bit about some revolutionizing new concepts for the future.

    • 11:00 AM 12:30 PM
      B2: Introductory course Nanosciences, Heiner Linke (Lund University, Sweden): Nanothermoelectrics - motivation and status SR III

      SR III

    • 12:30 PM 2:00 PM
      Lunch break 1h 30m
    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C1: Focus course Photon Science, Ian Robinson (LCN, UK): X-ray Coherent Diffraction Analysis of Materials SR II

      SR II

      X-ray Coherent Diffraction Analysis of Materials:
      This lecture will focus mainly on the technique of Bragg Coherent
      Diffraction Imaging (BCDI), which my research group has been developing
      for the last 10 years. BCDI selects a single crystal out of a generic
      powder and measures the coherent fringes surrounding the diffraction
      pattern associated with one of its Bragg peaks. Once inverted to 3D
      images, these provide detailed information of lattice distortions
      associated with crystal strain.

    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C2: Focus course Infection and Structural Biology, César Muñoz-Fontela (HPI): Immunology of Ebola virus in mice and humans SR III

      SR III

      Immunology of Ebola virus in mice and humans:
      Despite the fact that we are still witnessing the largest Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak of all time, very little is known about the pathophysiology of EVD. In particular, due to the lack of small animal models of disease and the difficulties associated to BSL4 research, there has been very limited research on host immunity to ebolaviruses. Our laboratory has tried to tackle this gap in the field by building immunocompetent mouse models for Ebola virus and by going to the field to study EVD immunity in patients. Our research, focused on the mechanisms that modulate the initiation of Ebola virus-specific immunity has served to identify several key immune features of EVD: First, we have identified upregulation of the inhibitory molecule cytotoxic T cell lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) in CD8 T cells as a biomarker of fatal EVD in humans, a finding that underscores the importance of CD8 T cells on EVD immunity; second, we have dissected the role of different dendritic cell (DC) subsets in Ebola virus dissemination from the natural portal of entry to the body. We anticipate that further research will help to identify immune-based targets for EVD post-exposure therapy.

      slides
    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C3: Leadership skills (group A), Rob Thompson (RTTA) SR V

      SR V

    • 2:00 PM 3:30 PM
      C4: Presentation skills (group A), Elena Kaufman (UHH) SR I

      SR I

    • 3:30 PM 4:00 PM
      Coffee break 30m
    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D1: Focus course Particle and Astroparticle Physics, Matthias Kadler (University of Würzburg), Black-Hole Jets in the Universe SR II

      SR II

      Black-Hole Jets in the Universe

      It is now widely believed that supermassive black holes reside at the
      centers of most galaxies. They have masses of millions to billions times
      the mass of the sun and the violent physical processes in their
      immediate vicinity give rise to an immense power output. In active
      galactic nuclei, a small region around the black hole can easily
      outshine the whole host galaxy and may produce powerful collimated
      outflows of relativistic plasma, the so-called jets, which are
      associated with bright radio and gamma-ray emission. High-resolution
      radio observations allow us to image directly the innermost regions of
      AGN jets and to probe the extreme physical environment of supermassive
      black holes. Future observations at sub-mm wavelengths may even reveal
      the shadows of the black hole event horizons themselves. Complementary
      multiwavelength observations probe the accretion flow near the event
      horizon and measure the broadband spectral-energy distribution, which
      can be modeled to reveal how black holes form jets. In this course, we
      will discuss the relevant underlying physical processes and observations
      that lead to an understanding of the immediate vicinity of supermassive
      black holes and their creatures.

    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D2: Focus course Nanosciences, Heiner Linke (Lund University, Sweden): Quantum dots and nanowires as model systems for ideal thermoelectrics SR III

      SR III

      Quantum dots and nanowires as model systems for ideal thermoelectrics

    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D3: Leadership skills (group B), Rob Thompson (RTTA) SR V

      SR V

    • 4:00 PM 5:30 PM
      D4: Presentation skills (group B), Elena Kaufman (UHH) SR I

      SR I