High-energy solar flares have shown to have at least two distinct phases: prompt-impulsive and delayed-gradual. Identifying the mechanism responsible for accelerating the electrons and ions and the site at which it occurs during these two phases is one of the outstanding questions in solar physics. Many advances have been made over the past decade thanks to new observational data and refined simulations that together help to shed light on this topic. For example, the detection by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) of GeV emission from solar flares originating from behind the visible solar limb and >100 MeV emission lasting for more than 20 hours have suggested the need for a spatially extended source of acceleration during the delayed emission phase. In this talk I will review some of the major results from Fermi LAT observations of the 24th solar cycle and how this new observational channel combined with observations from across the electromagnetic spectrum can provide a unique opportunity to diagnose the mechanisms of high-energy emission and particle acceleration in solar flares.